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La SOPA que nos quieren hacer comer

La Ley Sopa es un proyecto de Ley norteamericano que quiere resguardar y controlar los intereses de grandes industrias del entretenimiento en internet como EMI, Warner Music, Sony y Universal Music. De qué trata ese asunto de prohibir lo que compartimos en la web.

Por Facundo Cottet*

La historia es en algunos casos matemática: es decir, sus resultados siempre son iguales. Cuando los que tienen el poder se reúnen nunca corre un aire normal; los poderosos son diez quince o veinte como mucho, y de las decisiones finales de ese grupo recaen consecuencias en millones de personas, en este caso millones de usuarios. Pero esa categorización -la de usuarios- no significa la inexistencia de derechos y, detrás de cada usuario hay en su extensa mayoría personas.

La Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos de las Naciones Unidas proclama en su artículo 19 que “Todo individuo tiene derecho a la libertad de opinión y de expresión; este derecho incluye el de no ser molestado a causa de sus opiniones, el de investigar y recibir informaciones y opiniones, y el de difundirlas, sin limitación de fronteras, por cualquier medio de expresión”. Difusión, de eso se trata y ese el punto principal que ataca la llamada Ley SOPA.

La Ley Sopa (Stop Online Piracy Act) es un proyecto de Ley presentado al congreso norteamericano el 26 de octubre del 2011 para resguardar y controlar los intereses de las grandes industrias del entretenimiento en internet (EMI Music Publishing, Warner Music Group, Sony Entertainment, Universal Music, son algunas de ellas). Su autor es un muchacho llamado Lamar Smith, un congresista republicano (al igual que la familia Bush) que representa al condado de Texas y quien no es más que un mero eslabón de la cadena de la industria, el alfil de los villanos en esta partida. Este proyecto de Ley provee la facultad a las empresas de cerrar los páginas web que ellos creen que están infringiendo sus derechos de autor y marcas comerciales.

El mecanismo de censura funciona de la siguiente manera: estas empresas dan aviso a los servidores de los sitios que dichas páginas que están bajo su prestación rompen los supuestos derechos de propiedad intelectual dándole un lapso de 5 días para bloquear la página sin la necesidad de presentarse ante cualquier tribunal.

Lo mismo ocurrirá con la transferencia de archivos, es decir si bajamos música armamos un blog para descargar los discos que nos gustan o simplemente ponemos en Facebook un enlace de YouTube (uno de los principales damnificados en la contienda ya que se trata de contenidos generados por los usuarios) los servidores deberán revelar los IP de las computadores (el IP es una etiqueta que identifica un espacio de conexión con otro, es decir la identificación única de un equipo) apropiándose de la facultad de cortar la conexión de dicho IP a la red.

Aunque en realidad lo que estaríamos haciendo es copiar una información y transferirla. Sólo por eso nos podrían cortar nuestra conexión a internet por más que como usuarios nunca le vamos a hacer nada a ese disco, película o material que va a seguir existiendo en su versión original. Esa pena aparece como la más leve, con un poco de mala suerte nosotros que transferimos archivos con información registrada podríamos ir presos.

Aunque la LEY SOPA se encuentra actualmente en suspenso y siendo analizada dado el masivo rechazo que tuvo por parte de la comunidad virtual y de los sitios más populares como Google, Facebook, YouTube, Wikipedia o Twitter, de este panorama surgen algunas preguntas. ¿Qué tiene que ver una ley gringa con nosotros que estamos al sur y lejos de todo esto?

Los servidores de las páginas, los que suben la página que nosotros armamos para difundir cualquier información producen sus servicios casi en su totalidad desde Estados Unidos y la aprobación de esta Ley les cae con todo el peso. ¿Internet dejaría de ser lo que es actualmente si se aprueba esta Ley? Sí, hoy en día Internet es un espacio de libre de transferencia en contenidos y opiniones donde se mantiene el anonimato. Esta condición permite en situaciones de persecución en –por ejemplo- gobiernos totalitarios la difusión de otras voces. El anonimato dejará de existir con La Ley SOPA.

Más allá de este proyecto ya se realizaron diferentes ataques al mundo de transferencia de archivos en la web y el 19 de enero de este año el servicio de la web Megaupload fue cerrado por el FBI y sus miembros detenidos más allá de que la empresa esté radicada en Hong Kong. Este servicio gratuito alojaba el cuatro por ciento de la información total que circulaba en internet que hoy por hoy está confiscada por la Oficina Federal de Investigaciones del Tío Sam.

Las cosas no se presentan de la mejor manera, pero en la unión de todos los usuarios está la resistencia a la censura y el control que se esconde en una supuesta defensa de derechos de poderosos grupos económicos que ven como su industria del entretenimiento está cayendo a pasos agigantados en internet.

Es por ello que se agrupan para ponerle fin a la era de libre circulación de información. Estados Unidos siempre obró “en nombre de la libertad” y ahora mientras escucho el fin del disco de Pappo Volumen 1 que bajé tiempo atrás de Megaupload y el Carpo pregunta “¿Adónde está la libertad?”, no aparecen respuestas a futuro.

*Estudiante de la carrera de Periodismo y Comunicación Social de la UNLP, productor radial y redactor del sitio de noticias platense LetraP.

(de la edición Nº 5, marzo 2012)

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